Fresh administration of cells after brief manipulation (for a matter of hours) offers a simpler approach than culturing cells, which involves more extensive manipulation (for 2 weeks) and a greater concern about infection.
The microenvironment plays a fundamental role in the transdifferentiation of stem cells.
Human mesenchymal stem cells (from adult bone marrow), when engrafted into murine hearts, seem to differentiate into cardiomyocytes that are indistinguishable from the host’s cardiomyocytes.
In this report, we wish to review available information about cardiovascular stem cell therapy, share our early experience in this new field, and speculate about future directions.
Although embryonic stem cells have been shown to have greater potency for proliferation and differentiation than adult stem cells, their lack of availability and ethical issues hamper clinical applications.
This may account for the heterogeneous mixture of models, methods, types, quantity, and nature of the cells employed and the timing of experiments.