Like much of Tamil Nadu, Tiruchirappalli remains prone to communal tensions based on religion and ethnicity.
There have been occasional outbreaks of violence against Sri Lankans.
The medieval history of Tiruchirappalli begins with the reign of the Pallava king Mahendravarman I, who ruled over South India in the 6th century AD and constructed the rock-cut cave-temples within the Rockfort.
He ruled the kingdom from 1736 to 1741, when he was captured and imprisoned by the Marathas in the siege of Tiruchirappalli (1741) led by general Raghuji Bhonsle under the orders of Chhattrapati Shahu.
Industrial units such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Golden Rock Railway Workshop and Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli (OFT) have their factories in Tiruchirappalli.
The presence of a large number of energy equipment manufacturing units in and around the city has earned it the title of "Energy Equipment and Fabrication Capital of India".
Tiruchirappalli is situated in central south-eastern India, almost at the geographic centre of the state of Tamil Nadu.